Diabetic retinopathy is an often complication of diabetic diseases, characterized by changes on small blood vessels of the eye retina. High blood sugar values cause damage to small blood vessels in the eye retina in sense of thickening of basal membrane and an increase in permeability of retinal blood vessels (non-proliferative phase, with no changes of visual acuity). In some patients, macular edema would develop due to leakage of liquid and lipids to retina through damaged blood vessels, with partially blurred vision. With the progress of the disease, diabetic retinopathy reaches the advanced stage or proliferative phase that occurs due to the lack of oxygen in retina and is manifested by formation of new, fragile blood vessels all over retina. If no early treatment is applied, bleeding occurs, blurred vision and finally blindness. Fibrovascular proliferation could cause retinal ablation. Also, blood vessels could grow in to the corner of anterior eye chamber, with consecutive neovascular glaucoma. Diabetic retinopathy occurs in almost 80% of all the patients suffering from the diabetic disease for 10 years and longer.

HBOT stops retinal bleeding, enhances vision, also lessens or changes the need for laser photo-coagulation that leaves permanent scars on retina.

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